The biker chooses eloquent names for his allegories.

Workers are compared to the “best grain” with poured spikelets, and women – with the “sex hinged” with empty spikelets, “growing in the field for free” (fables “Wheat” “Barley”).

The biker chooses eloquent names for his allegories. On one side are Bear, Wolf, Fox, Budyak, Eagle, Hops, on the other – Will, Cuckoo, Bullfinch, Lamb, Hemp, Rose. Successfully using the characteristic natural features and qualities of various representatives of the animal and plant world, taking into account folklore traditions and folk perception of nature, Grebinka transparently and concisely expresses his thoughts, makes them understandable to every reader.

Grebinka did not accidentally call his fables “proverbs”. It was from folk sayings that exceptionally accurate, aphoristically concise satirical images and linguistic means for depicting various phenomena were derived, and it was from proverbs that a powerful stream of humor and verbal colors flowed into the fable.

Some proverbs formed the basis of the plot (“Schoolboy Denis”, “Poem and Swamp”, etc.), and sometimes defined the composition of the fable as an elaborate metaphor (“Graves of the family”). Sometimes we meet expressive “portrait” characteristics (the king in the fable “Sinner”), realistic household details, almost documentary ethnographic color, skillfully painted landscapes.

In most fables, the narrative part appears as a kind of story with a sharp conflict, and they themselves are built in the form of a dialogue indicating the protagonists (“Barley” “Nightingale”) or dialogue, which, occupying more or less part of the work, is not graphically distinguished (“” “Poem and Swamp” “Cuckoo and Bullfinch”).

Fables with a monologue structure are enlivened by the active address of the narrator to the pretended interlocutor or even the whole group of listeners (“Schoolboy Denis”, “Ducklings to the Steppe”, “Rose to Hops”). The constant presence of the biker is almost always felt: he does not separate himself from a certain participation in the narrated cases or involvement in them, which allows to determine the author’s attitude to the portrayed, sometimes hidden by the seeming naivete of the story.

M. Rylsky emphasized: “The realistic basis of Hrebinka’s fables is quite obvious.” This applies to fables with borrowed plots, and even more so those that did not arise from literary samples, but are based on a real fact or event, have specific prototypes, although information about them has not reached us.

Panko and Onysko, Ohrim and Opanas, schoolboy Denis, Ivan and Petro Derkach, judge Glyva and gray Kindrat, “devils of the devil’s pressure” Hrytsko Pidsaka with his uncle and other characters of Hrebinka’s fables have lost individual features and are perceived differently by each generation of readers. But not lost – and never lost! – the artistic power of the best, truly folk works of the outstanding biker. Some expressions of fables, even their names, taken from folk sources, in turn went to the people as proverbs, became winged words (“And the Swan swam to the bottom – and spewed out like snow” “Shut up! Hear – you ‘ ll be beaten “” Fox hoofs will give “” Bear’s Court “” The smaller will not go where the bigger one can “, etc.).


The outstanding writer Maxim Gorky. Abstract

Gorky, Maxim – the literary name of the famous writer Alexei Maksimovich Peshkov. He was born in Nizhny Novgorod on March 14, 1868. By his origin, Gorky does not belong to those scum of society, a singer of which he performed in literature. The apologist of the bastard came from a completely bourgeois environment

His father, who died early, broke out of the wallpaper company into the management of a large steamship office; his maternal grandfather, Kashirin, was a wealthy painter. At the age of 7, Gorky was left an orphan, and his grandfather began to go bankrupt, and for the abandoned boy, who almost did not know the mercy of the boy, came the epic of wanderings and bad weather, which prompted him to choose the symbolic nickname Gorky.

First, he is given to the “boys” in a shoe store, then he gets to the students to a relative – the draftsman. Life was so sweet that the boy, who inherited from his parents and grandparents energy and passion for adventure, coincided, and since then began for him the struggle for existence and the constant change of occupations and professions. He lived best as a cook on the Volga steamer.

In the person of his closest boss – a steamship cook, retired Guards undertaker Smury – Gorky found the first real mentor, whom he always remembered with the greatest gratitude. Until then, Gorky, who learned to read and write from his grandfather in the Psalms and the Hourglass and only a few months unsuccessfully went to school, was far from mental interests. Smury, a man of fabulous physical strength and rude, but at the same time passionate lover of reading, partly kindly, partly beaten instilled a love of reading and his cook, who before “hated any printed paper.”

Now the cook began to “madly” read the books of the Dark, which he had accumulated a whole chest. Overcoming this chest was not an easy task. “It was the strangest library in the world”: the mystic Eckarthausen next to Nekrasov, Anna Radcliffe – with the volume “Contemporary”; immediately “Spark” for 64 years, “Stone of Faith” Gleb Uspensky, Dumas, many books of Frankish Freemasons, etc. Of the cooks Gorky got into gardeners, tried different professions, at leisure, “carefully reading the classical works” of Luboch literature (“Guac, or Irresistible Loyalty”, etc.).

Interest in lyubochny literature left a deep mark on Gorky’s work; her heroic style brought up in him that romanticism, that inclination to effects “in the style of Marlinsky” which reproaches Gorky part of criticism. Gorky’s ability to move into the magical realm of beautiful fiction not only brightened his life, but inspired his best literary works, helped him see bright colors where the realist observer saw only hopeless grayness and dull dirt.

“At the age of 15,” says Gorky in his autobiography, “I became eager to study, for which purpose I went to Kazan, assuming that science was taught as a gift. It turned out that it was not accepted, as a result of which I entered the pretzel institution in 2 years. ” This is the hardest job I’ve ever tested. “

The Kazan period in general is one of the most difficult in Gorky’s life. It was here that he, by bitter necessity, made a close acquaintance with the world of “former people” in various depths and dormitories. Meanwhile, however, continued a passionate fascination with the book, but its nature has changed significantly.

After getting acquainted with the students, Gorky began to read on social issues. He also begins to think about public relations. This reflection, generated by the new reading, no longer brought the reassurance that the beautiful untruth of lubochny romanticism gave. And here came the period of particularly acute shortage and direct starvation, and the 19-year-old proletarian fired a bullet, fortunately, without much harm. “He got sick as much as he needed” he “came to life to start trading in apples.”

From Kazan Gorky gets to Tsaritsyn by a line guard on the railway. One snowy night he caught a bad cold and lost his tenor, thanks to which he was recently accepted as a chorister. Then he went to the Lower, where he had to serve in the army. But he proved unsuitable for the army – “leaky” are not taken – and began to sell kvass on the streets.

In the Lower he again established relations with the intelligentsia, and this time very strong. He became a copyist for the Nizhny Novgorod juror MA Lapin, to whom he “owes most”. Soon, however, “he felt out of place among the intelligentsia and went on a journey.”

He went out on foot all over the south of Russia, earning himself food than he got and not disgusted by any work. Exhausting work under the scorching sun in ports on the Caspian fisheries, on the pier, etc., is described in Konovalov’s Rozhi, Chelkashe, and others. – All these are sheets from the autobiography.

During these travels, sometimes terribly difficult, but at the same time uplifting with an abundance of new and interesting experiences, Gorky became close to a third mentor who had a decisive influence on him – with a man “out of society” AF Kalyuzhny. He recognized the writer in him. The beginning of Gorky’s literary activity dates back to 1892.

According to the passport of the “apprentice of the painting shop” for temporary employment, a worker of railway workshops, Gorky at that time was in Tiflis. He took down to the editorial office of the “Caucasus” a semi-fairytale essay from the “Makar Chudra” familiar to him from the Bessarabian travels of gypsy life, which was published in September 12. The story was a success. Returning to Nizhny, Gorky published several essays in Kazan and Nizhny Novgorod newspapers, and the story “Omelyan Pylyay” was accepted in “Russian Gazette”.

Gorky’s acquaintance with VG Korolenko, who lived in Nizhny at that time, dates back to 1893-94. To him, as Gorky notes with gratitude in his autobiography, he “owes himself to being included in great literature.” The role played in the literary destiny of Gorky as Korolenko and other patrons of his writers, however, should not be exaggerated. All of them, of course, recognized some talent in Gorky, but none of them came up with the most distant idea of ​​what fate awaits a talented but “unbalanced” nugget.

In 1895 Gorky’s story “Chelkash” was published in “Russian Wealth”; then during 1895, 1896 and 1897 there were stories: “Error” and “Men of the Eagle” – in “Russian Thoughts”; “Longing” “Konoval” “Former people” – in “New Word”; “Malva” and “Beshketnyk” – in “Northern Herald”. In 1895 Gorky published a number of short stories in the Samara Gazette under the title Shadow Pictures.

In the feuilleton of the same newspaper appeared Gorky’s stories “Baba Izergil” “On the rafts” “Boredom for the sake of” “Once in the fall” and “Song of the Falcon” a number of stories that were not included in the collection of his works (“On salt” “Fairy tale” “On the little Fairy and the young Shepherd”, etc.) and poems. Finally, in the “Samara Gazette” Gorky during 1895 and 1896, under the pseudonym Yegudiil Khlamida, conducted a daily “little feuilleton.”

He also wrote correspondence in “Odessa News”. In the present list all the best in the first period of Gorky’s literary activity is named. And yet not only his deputies, but he himself to such an extent had no correct idea of ​​the inner strength of his works, that in an autobiographical essay compiled for the literary archive of the author of this article, Gorky wrote at the end of 1897: “To I have not yet written a single thing that would satisfy me, and therefore I do not keep my works.”